Track 1: Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is the branch of medication that game plans with the life structures, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and circle. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in remedial and surgical eye issues. their capabilities consolidate a M.D. or, of course D.O. degree in pharmaceutical, trailed by an additional four years of residency. Additional planning may be searched for through collaboration in a particular strong point of eye pathology. Ophthalmologists are allowed to remedially treat eye sickness, realize laser treatment, and perform incisional surgery when supported. The instruct applies to each and every animal eye, paying little mind to whether human or not, since the preparation and systems are exceptionally tantamount with respect to contamination shapes, while differentiates in life structures or disorder regularity, regardless of whether unpretentious or impressive, may isolate the two.
Retinal Vascular Disease
Episclera and Lens
Dry Eye Disorders
Ocular and imaging Techniques
Track 2: Optometry
Optometry is a health care profession which involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease. Traditionally, the field of optometry began with the primary focus of correcting refractive error through the use of spectacles. Modern day optometry, however, has evolved through time so that the education curriculum additionally includes intensive medical training in the diagnosis and management of ocular disease in countries where the profession is established and regulated. Optometrists (also known as Doctors of Optometry in the US and Canada for those holding the O.D. degree or Ophthalmic Opticians in the UK are medical professionals who provide primary eye care through comprehensive eye examinations to detect and treat various visual abnormalities and eye diseases. Being a regulated profession, an optometrist's scope of practice may differ depending on the location. Thus, disorders or diseases detected outside the treatment scope of optometry are referred out to relevant medical professionals for proper care, more commonly to ophthalmologists who are physicians that specialize in tertiary medical and surgical care of the eye. Optometrists typically work closely together with other eye care professionals such as ophthalmologists and opticians to deliver quality and efficient eye care to the general public.
Track 3: Vision Science
Vision Science is the scientific study of vision and it is a relatively recent term which is use to describe all studies that are related to how humans and animals process information visually. This type of science also had numerous sub-types such as ophthalmology, neuroscience, computer vision, perception psychology and more.
Effect of Nutrition on Vision
Binocular Vision & Vision therapy
Contact Lens and Eye Implants
Track 4: Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a confused ailment in which harm to the optic nerve prompts dynamic, irreversible vision misfortune. Glaucoma is the second driving reason for visual impairment. Glaucoma is an illness of the eye in which liquid weight inside the eye rises - if left untreated the patient may lose vision, and even end up plainly visually impaired. The sickness for the most part influences the two eyes, albeit one may have more serious signs and indications than the other. There is a little space in the front of the eye called the "foremost chamber". A clear fluid stream all through the foremost chamber, this liquid sustains and washes adjacent tissues. In the event that a patient has glaucoma, the liquid does not deplete legitimately - it empties too gradually - from the eye. This prompts liquid develop, and weight inside the eye rises. Unless this weight is cut down and controlled, the optic nerve and different parts of the eye may end up plainly harmed, prompting loss of vision. There are two principle sorts of glaucoma, open edge and shut point (edge conclusion) glaucoma. The liquid in the eye courses through a range between the iris and cornea, where it escapes by means of the trabecular meshwork - "edge" alludes to this zone. The trabecular meshwork is made of sponky tissue lined by trabeculocytes. Liquid channels into s set of tubes, known as Schlemm's trench, from which they stream into the blood framework.
Primary and Secondary Glaucoma
Open angle glaucoma
Closed angle glaucoma
Diagnosis and Treatment
Retinopathy at prematurity
Abnormal vision development
Track 5: Retina and Retina Disorders
The purpose of the Retina in human eyes is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals to the brain for visual detection. Retinal disorders such as Macular degeneration ,Diabetic retinopathy ,Retinal vein occlusion, Retinal detachment and many more can treated through Laser therapy, Cry therapy, Photodynamic therapy, Vasectomy, Scleral Buckle etc. . With modern therapy, over 90 percent of those with a retinal detachment can be successfully treated, although sometimes a second treatment is needed.
Many eye ailments have no early side effects. They might be easy, and you may see no adjustment in your vision until the malady has turned out to be very best in class. The absolute most ideal approach to secure your vision is through standard expert eye examinations. Obviously, between examinations, in the event that you see an adjustment in your vision – or you think your eye might be harmed in any capacity – contact your eye mind proficient quickly and eye infections have no early symptoms. They may be easy, and you may see no alteration in your vision until the contamination has ended up being absolute best in class. Without a doubt the best way to deal with secure your vision is through standard master eye examinations. Clearly, between examinations, if you see an alteration in your vision – or you think your eye may be hurt in any way – contact your eye mind capable instantly.
Diabetic Eye Disease
Retinal Vein Occlusion
Clinical Research on Retina
Diabetic Macular Edema
Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Acquired Retinal Issue
Cornea and Ocular Surface Diseases
Retina Vein Impediment
Track 6: Photo Refractive Keratectomy
Photo Refractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy (or laser epithelial keratomileusis, LASEK) are laser eye surgery procedures intended to correct a person's vision, reducing dependency on glasses or contact lenses. LASEK and PRK permanently change the shape of the anterior central cornea using an excimer laser to ablate (remove by vaporization) a small amount of tissue from the corneal stroma at the front of the eye, just under the corneal epithelium. The outer layer of the cornea is removed prior to the ablation.
PRK v/s LASIK
Track 7: Eye Surgery
Glasses and contacts lenses have become a nuisance as the success of LASIK surgery. LASIK surgery is quite popular among the all surgery. It alters the outer layer of the eye, specifically the cornea. Among the refractive surgery different types surgery are there, Interlace LASIK, PRK, Implantable Contact Lenses, Caruso Cachet Lens, Refractive Lens Exchange, and Astigmatic Keratotomy. The benefits realized by patients usually involve lifestyle changes, free from glasses. The risk factors can be major to minor. An ophthalmologist should examine the patients before the surgery, if he/she is ideal candidate for surgery or not.
Laser Eye Surgery
Eye Muscle Surgery
Vitro retinal Surgery
Track 8: Dry Eye
Also termed as ‘keratoconjunctivitis sicca’.The Dry Eye Sydrome mainly caused due to deficiency of aqueous humor . Actually it’s a multifarious disease of the tear film and ocular surface that results in symptoms of visual discomfort, and tears film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Artificial Tear Solutions which containing mainly hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose(HPMC), carboxyl methylcellulose(CMC), polyvinyl alcohol, Carbopol, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone(PVP), polyethylene glycol(PEG), dextran, hyaluronic acid, are used in this cases.
Steroid Eye Drops
Intense Pulsed Light
Track 9: Cataract and Cataract Surgery
Waterfalls are an exceptionally normal eye condition. As you get more established the focal point inside your eye bit by bit changes and turns out to be less straightforward (clear). A focal point that has turned dim, or shady, is said to have a waterfall. After some time a waterfall can deteriorate, progressively making your vision mistier. A direct operation can as a rule expel your cloudy focal point and supplant it with a counterfeit focal point to empower you to see all the more unmistakably once more. This guide is about waterfalls in grown-ups. A few youngsters create waterfalls, called inherent waterfalls, before or soon after birth however these are generally managed contrastingly to waterfalls in grown-ups.
Medications such as steroids
Eye surgery for other eye conditions
Other eye conditions
Laser Cataract Surgery
Extra Capsular Cataract Surgery
Intra Capsular Cataract Surgery
Track 10: Colour blindness and Night blindness
Colour blindness is not a type of blindness by any means, but rather an inadequacy in the way you see shading. With this vision issue, you experience issues recognizing certain hues, for example, blue and yellow or red and green. Visual impairment (or, all the more precisely, shading vision lack) is an acquired condition that influences guys more habitually than females. As indicated by Prevent Blindness America, an expected 8 percent of guys and under 1 percent of females have shading vision issues. Red-green shading lack is the most well-known type of visual impairment. Considerably more once in a while, a man may acquire a quality that decreases the capacity to see blue and yellow shades. This blue-yellow shading inadequacy as a rule influences men and ladies similarly.
Night blindness is additionally called "nyctalopia". It's a kind of vision impairment. Individuals with night blindness encounter poor vision at night or in faintly lit situations. Despite the fact that the expression "night blindness" suggests that you can't see at night, this isn't the situation. You may simply have more trouble seeing or driving in dimness. A few sorts of night blindness are treatable, and different sorts aren't. See your specialist to decide the basic reason for your vision impairment. When you know the reason for the issue, you can find a way to amend your vision.
Track 11: Surgical Systems
Inventions in ophthalmology have expanded greatly in recent times, and the next major advancement in ophthalmology will be the integration of robotic surgery. Robotic systems have been applied in the ophthalmic surgical environment for more than several years. Since then, robotic surgical systems have proliferated in several manners in other surgeries. Cataract Surgery is the most common surgery procedure present in the ophthalmology field. Most modern cataract surgery is performed using a variation of the extracapsular technique, which involves removal of the crystalline lens through an opening made in the anterior lens capsule (known as a capsulectomy).
Micro Incision Cataract Surgery
Posterior Vitrectomy & Phaco Emulsification System
Laser Ophthalmic Surgical Systems
Phacoemulsification Ophthalmic Surgical Systems
Photo Refractive Keratectomy Systems
Track 12: Refractive Errors
Refractive error means that the shape of the eye does not bend light correctly, resulting in a blurred image. The main types of refractive errors are myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), presbyopia (loss of near vision with age) and astigmatism. Refractive disorders are commonly treated using corrective lenses such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. Refractive surgery (such as LASIK) can also be used to correct some refractive disorders. Presbyopia, in the absence of any other refractive error, can sometimes be treated with over-the-counter reading glasses. There is no way to slow down or reverse presbyopia. A refractive error can be diagnosed by an eye care professional during a routine eye examination.Testing usually consists of asking the patient to read a vision chart while testing an assortment of lenses to maximize a patient’s vision. Special imaging or other testing is rarely necessary.
Track 13: Eye Care and Advancements in Eye Care
Current technologies are revolutionize the quality of life for those with low or impaired vision there are some upcoming technologies that will greatly impact the lives of people dealing with impaired vision. (a)Telescopic Eye Implant (b)The Bionic Eye (c)Bionic Contact Lens (d)LASIK (e )Wavefront analysis (f)Argon or Diode laser (g)Femtosecond laser iStent (h)Ex-PRESS shunt (i)Selective laser trabeculoplasty
Telescopic Eye Implants
The Bionic Eye
Bionic Contact Eye
Track 14: Lens Technology
Contact lenses are considered as an advanced medical devices, worn to correct vision or for cosmetic or therapeutic reasons, compared with spectacles, contact lenses enable more ease of wear during sports and leisure activities by providing a wider field of view, less chance of dislodgement, less susceptibility to fogging, slipping off the face due to sweating, and dirt. Contact lenses also allow sunglasses and protective eyewear to be worn on top without any hassle. Contact lenses typically provide better peripheral vision, and do not collect moisture. Eventually, Glaucoma patients could potentially insert drug-dispensing contact lenses rather than taking the eye drops repeatedly.
Smart Contact Lens
Nano Wafer Contact Lenses
Glucose Monitoring Contact Lenses
Telescopic Contact Lenses
Track 15: Novel Advances in Vision Improvement
Gene Therapy in the field of Eye disease treatment is a biggest achievement. In gene therapy, the target is the retina, being a particularly perfect organ for therapeutic interventions. Also as a small tissue, highly compartmentalized, immune-privileged and easily accessible.
As there is no cure for the permanent vision loss caused by the several Retinal diseases. One of the novel therapeutic strategies aims at the development of stem cells based neuroprotective and regenerative medicine. Embryo, bone marrow, the region of neuronal genesis and the eye are the main sources of Stem Cells for the treatment of Retinal diseases.
Stem cells Transplantation
Encapsulated Cell Technology
Track 16: Eye Disorders and Their Cure
Diseases of the eye are very common. Common eye diseases that include cataracts, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. These eye diseases have the potential to seriously impair someone’s vision and/or interfere with the activities of daily living, and patients who have cataracts, diabetic retinopathy or glaucoma may need help in ambulating, dressing, eating and with other personal care activities. Typical allergens affecting the eyes include pollen and mold spores, animal dander and dust mites.
FMRI and Visual Dysfunction
X-linked Retinitis Pigmentosa Gene Therapy
Achromatopsia and its cure
Drugs for retinal diseases
Track 17: Ocular Oncology
Ocular oncology is the branch of ophthalmology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of tumors on the surface of the eye and inside of the eye which is also known as ocular tumors. The Ocular Oncology provides advanced care and treatments for children and adults who have been referred for management of ocular tumors in and around the eye.
Ocular Oncology is a study area involving retinoblastoma which is one of the commonest eye tumors. The various treatment modalities coming under ocular oncology are chemotherapy, laser photocoagulation, brachytherapy, Tran’s pupillary thermo therapy etc. Ocular oncology is one of the main branches of ophthalmic research and it includes various methods of eye cancer management.
Track 18: Lacrimal Surgery
Lacrimal Surgery is a sub-specialty of ophthalmology which mainly focuses on diseases of the eyelids and abnormalities of tear-drainage system. Tears are essential to lubricate and protect the health of the eye. DCR and Endo-DCR (tear duct bypass surgery) is a surgery performed to repair a blocked or obstructed tear duct. The tear duct is a passageway from the eye to the nose that facilitates the drainage of tears.
C-DCR Conjunctivo-Dacryocystorhinostomy (tear duct bypass with implant).
Punctal Stenosis and Stent
Track 19: Canaloplasty
It is actually done for open angle Glaucoma patients. Under canaloplasty, a micro catheter or tube placed in the Canal of Schlemm to enlarge the drainage canal, which relieves the excess pressure inside the eye caused by Glaucoma. It is very much useful especially for those patients having high risk for infection or bleeding. Canaloplasty can eliminate the need for eye drops among glaucoma patients. Canaloplasty has an impressive safety profile with minimal ppst operative follow up and faster recovery.
Intra Ocular Pressure
Track 20: Neuro-Optometry
Each year, more than 1 million people sustain traumatic brain injuries. Following a brain injury, there is often an interruption in communication between the eyes and the brain. Neuro-optometry is a specialty field of vision care that combines neurology and optometry to assess how the brain processes information sent from the eyes. When communication between your brain and eyes is disrupted due to injury or disease, vision problems usually occur. A patient who may have experienced brain injury, stroke, balance and mobility issues, loss of one eye, double vision, light sensitivity, post trauma vision syndrome, or visual midline shift syndrome should be referred to a neuro-optometrist for further evaluation. Following an injury or insult to the brain, there is often an interruption to the neurological system which innervate the extraocular muscles controlling eye movements as well as the system that regulates focusing (clear versus blurry vision). Neuro-optometrists have long recognized symptoms and visual problems associated with trauma that affect the functional visual system and have identified a syndrome, Post Trauma Vision Syndrome (PTVS).
Track 21: Pediatric Ophthalmology
Pediatric ophthalmologists concentrate on the advancement of the visual framework and the different illnesses that disturb visual improvement in youngsters. Pediatric ophthalmologists likewise have ability in dealing with the different visual infections that influence kids. Pediatric ophthalmologists are met all requirements to perform complex eye surgery and additionally to deal with kids' eye issues utilizing glasses and meds. Numerous ophthalmologists and different doctors allude pediatric patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and administration of visual issues because of youngsters' novel needs. Notwithstanding youngsters with clear vision issues, kids with head turns, head tilts, squinting of the eyes or favored head stances (torticollis) are ordinarily alluded to a pediatric ophthalmologist for assessment. Pediatric ophthalmologists ordinarily likewise oversee grown-ups with eye development issue for example nystagmus or strabismus because of their commonality with strabismus conditions.
Retinopathy of Prematurity
Modern Treatment of Amblyopia
Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity
Controversies in the Management of Infantile Cataract
Pediatric Ocular Oncology
Importance and Scope:
This field of vision science: Ocular treatment & care is growing rapidly and its development is making an amazing impact in medical and health sciences and pharmaceuticals. The importance and significance can be calculated by the fact that it had made great advancements over the period of time and is continuing in various other sectors.
Research and development in vision science addresses wide range of topics such as, visually guided behaviour and cognition, neural processes underlying visually guided behaviour, comparative anatomy and physiology of visual systems, development and plasticity of the visual systems, regenerative medicine in visual neuroscience, photoreceptor function to visual consciousness and awareness, diagnosis and treatment of vision and eye disorders, machine and computational vision. Vision Science employs exciting new methods to investigate image processing by the eye through modern neuroscience and via measuring visual acuity and temporal resolution in the eye. The amount of image processing going on in the eyeball is astounding and the key is to understand this process at neural level.
Vision loss is major issue worldwide and 285 million people are estimated to be visually impaired worldwide out of which 39 million are blind and 246 have low vision. Globally, uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of moderate and severe visual impairment; cataracts remain the leading cause of blindness in middle and low income countries; diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma are also leading causes of vision loss.
Scope of Ocular Health Professionals:
Major Vision Science Associations around the Globe are:
Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)
Vision Sciences Society (VSS)
Human Vision and Electronic Imaging (HVEI)
Image Perception in Medical Imaging
Eye Tracking Research & Applications (ETRA)
Scottish Vision Group and Applied Vision Association (AVA)
European Conference on Visual Perception (ECVP)
ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science
Center for Artificial Vision Research, Korea
York University, Centre for Vision Research
CIC Society for Imaging Science and Technology
International colour consortium
European Association for Vision and Eye Research
International Commission on Illumination
Society for Neuroscience
ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories Visual Perception Group
NASA Perceptual and Behavioural Adaptation Group
NASA Vision Science and Technology Group
Caltech, Vision Lab
Quebec Vision Research Network
RIT Centres for Colour and Imaging Science
The number of non-institutionalized, male or female, all ages, all races, regardless of ethnicity, with all education levels in the New York reported to have a visual disability -
According to WHO report-
285 million people are estimated to be visually impaired worldwide: 39 million are blind and 246 have low vision.
About 90% of the world’s visually impaired live in low-income settings.
82% of people living with blindness are aged 50 and above.
Globally, uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of moderate and severe visual impairment; cataracts remain the leading cause of blindness in middle- and low-income countries.
The number of people visually impaired from infectious diseases has reduced in the last 20 years according to global estimates work.
80% of all visual impairment can be prevented or cured.
Prevalence of Visual Disability:
Total (all ages): 2.3%
Total (16 to 75+): 8.6%
Age 18 to 64:1.9%
Age 65 and older: 6.7%
An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired. Of these, 12 million children are visually impaired because of refractive errors, which is easily diagnosed and corrected. Globally, 70-80% of all visual impairment can be cured. Few efforts include:
Brazil which in the last decade has been providing eye care services through the national social security system;
Morocco which has launched a public effort to control glaucoma;
China which has invested over 100 million dollars in cataract surgeries since 2009;
Oman has completely integrated eye care service provision in the primary health care framework over the last decade; and
India since 1995 has made available funds for eye care service provision for the poorest at district level.
Ophthalmology Researchers and Scholars
Ophthalmology Associations and Societies
Vision Research Labs
Software developing companies
Manufacturing Medical Devices Companies
Data Management Companies
Associations Manufacturing Medical Devices
Global ophthalmology market by products:
Diagnostic and monitoring devices
Diagnostic and monitoring devices:
Optical Coherence Tomographers (OCT)
Ophthalmic ultrasound imaging systems
Visual field analysers/Perimeter
Glance at market:
After an immense collapse of the market during 2008-2009, optometry & ophthalmology market is meeting up to get back to the normal state as there is a rapid growth in patients with vision impairment and the cases of cataract and glaucoma are increasing every year. “The worldwide ophthalmic products market exceeds $22 billion (US) and is growing at more than 15% per year. Without the incorporation of consumer eye care products, the ophthalmic products market is roughly a $17 billion market. According to the research report, the global ophthalmic drugs market was valued at US$16 bn in 2012 and is estimated to reach a market value of US$21.6 bn by 2018, rising at a CAGR of 5.2% from 2013 to 2018. Ocular drugs or vision medications refer to ointments, drops, or intraocular disks that are prescribed to patients with eye-related disorders.
Glaucoma has the largest market share in the ophthalmic drugs market and it is expected to grow at a CAGR of about 4.2% during 2013 – 2018. Cataract is responsible for 48% of the population becoming totally blind. In addition, more than 60 million people suffer from glaucoma and this number is expected to reach 80 million by 2020.The medical diagnostics market accounted for 29% of market share in 2014. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 34.8% between 2015 and 2020. APAC is expected to grow at a CAGR of 36.7% between 2015 and 2020. This is because of the advanced technological changes and new products availability at low cost.
Major Eye Health Issues:
Many eye diseases have no early adverse effects. They might be basic, easy and you may see circumstances in your vision until the disease has become quite extreme. The best way to protect your vision is through usual professional eye check-ups. During check-ups if you think your eye may get injured, immediately contact your eye care professional. Eye disease victim may face various eye conditions such as-
Absence of eye or eyes (anophthalmos), Frequent Blinking (cranial nerve palsy, blepharospasm, Parkinson's disease eye), Bloodshot eye, Blurred vision (myopia/hyperopia), Bump on eye (papilloma, sty, milia), Cloud shape in vision, Crossed eyes, Distorted vision, Discharge, Floater in vision, Iris defect, Lazy eye and many more. The most common causes are –
Presbyopia – because of hardening of lens of the eye there is difficulty in focusing on objects that are close. This is type of refractive error that focuses light behind rather than on the retina.
Cataracts - clouding or darkness of the lens in the eye which leads to a loss of vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Poor vision caused by cataracts may also result in risk of falling and depression.
Glaucoma - harms the eye’s optic nerve. Main cause is extra fluid pressure build up in the eye.
Macular degeneration - also known as AMD (age-related macular degeneration) that causes the graduate loss of sight because of blurring or loss of central vision. Victim face distorted vision (straight line may appear wavy).
Diabetic eye disease.
Aging is the main cause of blindness in people.
Eye infection, inflammation, or injury.
Night blindness- also called “nyctalopia.” People experience poor vision at night or in dimly lit environments.
Retinal detachment – the retina separates from the layer underneath. Common symptoms include number of floaters and glances or flashes of light.
Optic Neuritis -also known as optic papillitis. Symptoms include inflammation of the optic nerve from infection or multiple sclerosis.
On the basis of condition and lifestyle, you may be able to choose from corrective lenses, contact lenses, or surgery to improve your vision.
In case of cataract the surgeon will take out your lens and replace it with a man-made (artificial) one.
Eye drops lessen the formation of fluid in the eye or increase its outflow. Aftereffects may include allergies, redness, stinging, blurred vision, and irritated eyes.
Laser surgery or LASIK is a surgical procedure that uses a laser to correct near-sightedness, farsightedness, and/or astigmatism. In LASIK, a delicate flap in the cornea is set up using either a microkeratome blade or a femtosecond laser.
Trabeculectomy the doctor creates a new duct or cannal to pool the fluid and ease eye pressure.
Intravenous steroid therapy might speed vision recovery, but it doesn't appear to affect the extent of vision you'll restore.
Lucentis works by repressing proteins called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which encourage the growth of new blood vessels in the body. VEGF may count out to development of macular degeneration by encouraging the growth of abnormal blood vessels in the retina.
A potential asset of Eylea, also known as VEGF Trap-Eye, is that its recommended dosage is an injection into the eye at an interval of eight weeks.